按:
那篇是农学人10月刊“终生学习”越发广播揭橥的结尾一篇,关注在技术越来越有或许替代人类工作的前些天,低技术群体的双重教育难点。读完本文你将精通到目前的MOOC教育方式带来便利的同时其实并有失公允(博士们尽快抓紧时间自小编提高吧),以及新加坡那样的国家为其人民提供的继续教育福利。作为个体来说,无法坐等国家或小卖部提供便利,利用整整资源抓紧学习才是王道。
春节假日就快截止了,扶朕起来,继续上学!

The elephant in the truck

The elephant in the truck

货车里的大象


One is trade unions. They have an industry-wide view of trends that may
not be available to smaller employers. They can also accompany people
throughout their working lives, which may become increasingly important
in a world of rising self-employment. Denmark’s tripartite system, for
example, binds together employers, government and unions. Firms and
unions get together to identify skills needs; collective-bargaining
agreements enshrine rights to paid leave for training. The country’s
famed “flexicurity” system offers unemployed workers a list of 258
vocational-training programmes.
里面之一是工会。他们有所的全行业发展趋势视角往往是相似小型用人单位所不富有的。他们一样可以陪伴劳动者的一体职业生涯,在一个自创创业更多的社会风气中那将变得进一步紧要。以丹麦王国的三方种类为例,将用人单位、政府和工会组成起来。集团和工会组成来规定技能须要;劳资谈判来规定培训的权利。国内享有闻名的“弹性安全”制度为没有工作劳动者提供了
258 种假日培训安排。

In Britain a well-regarded programme called Union Learn uses union
representatives both to inform workers about training options and to
liaise with employers on workers’ requests for training. Employees seem
more likely to discuss shortfalls in basic skills with union
representatives than with managers. An analysis by academics at Leeds
University Business School shows that between 2001 and 2013 union
members in Britain were a third more likely to have received training
than non unionised workers.
在英国二个小出名气被号称 Union Learn
的陈设通过工会代表来报告劳动者的打造选拔并将劳动者的培养需要告诉用人单位。相较于用人单位,劳动者就好像将基础技术的缺失难题告知工会代表。
Leeds University Business School 的一项学术研讨提出,在 二零零四 年到 二零一三年之间,在United Kingdom涉企工会的生产者接受培养的比例比尚未到位的大了大概三分之一。

The second entity is government. There is much talk about lifelong
learning, though few countries are doing much about it. The Nordics fall
into this less populated camp. But it is Singapore that can lay claim to
the most joined-up approach with its Skills Future initiative. Employers
in the city-state are asked to spell out the changes, industry by
industry, that they expect to happen over the next three to five years,
and to identify the skills they will need. Their answers are used to
create “industry transformation maps” designed to guide individuals on
where to head.
第四个实体是政坛。关于终生学习的演讲很多,不过没什么政党的确做了很多。北欧的无数国度在那地点落入下风。反而是新加坡政党声称通过
Skills Future
项目确立了最成熟连串。这么些城邦国家须求不一致行业的用人单位列明行业的开拓进取变迁,以及以往三到五年的发展趋势,然后提议他们需求的贴切技能。这几个答案被用于创建一个“产业变迁地图”,最后服务于那个引导劳动者今后发展趋势。

Retraining low-skilled workers

Systems for continuous reskilling threaten to buttress inequality
Jan 14th 2017

英文中有句谚语叫做an elephant in the room,意思是there is an obvious
problem or difficult situation that people do not want to talk
about.此处有戏仿的代表,因为下文提到了卡车司机。
buttress: to support or give strength to sb/sth

亚洲必赢网游戏手机版 1

慕课时代的教诲公平

  1. IMAGINE YOU ARE a 45-year-old long-distance lorry driver. You never
    enjoyed school and left as soon as you could, with a smattering
    of
    qualifications and no great love of learning. The job is tiring
    and solitary, but it does at least seem to offer decent job
    security: driver shortages are a perennial complaint in the
    industry, and the average age of the workforce is high (48 in
    Britain), so the shortfalls are likely to get worse. America’s
    Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) says there were 1.8m truckers in
    2014 and expects a 5% rise in their number by 2024. “As the economy
    grows, the demand for goods will increase and more truck drivers
    will be needed to keep supply chains moving,” predicts the BLS
    website, chirpily.
    1)想象你是七个肆拾伍岁的长途货车驾驶员。你从来没有喜欢过学习,并不久离开了院校,唯有一点点专业资格,也不爱读书。那项工作是慵懒而一身的,但它起码就像可以提供得体的劳作维持:司机缺乏是以此行当长年的抱怨,劳引力的平均年龄很高(在大英帝国为四十七周岁),所以驾驶员短缺情形或者会变得更糟。美利坚联邦合众国劳工计算局(BLS)表示,2015年有180万卡车司机,预计到2024年将增多5%。“随着经济的提升,货物要求将加码,必要越多的卡车司机来维系供应链运行”,BLS网站欢快地预测道。

  2. But the future might unfold very differently. For all the
    excitement over self-driving passenger cars, the freight industry is
    likely to adopt autonomous vehicles even faster. And according to a
    report in 2014 by Morgan Stanley, a bank, full automation might
    reduce the pool of American truck drivers by two-thirds. Those
    projections came hedged with caveats, and rightly so. The
    pace of adoption may be slowed by regulation. Drivers may still be
    needed to deal with unforeseen problems; if such jobs require more
    technical knowledge, they may even pay better. Employment in other
    sectors may grow as freight costs come down. But there is a chance
    that in the not too distant future a very large number of
    truckers will find themselves redundant. The implications are
    immense.
    2)可是,以往大概会以不一致的法门展开。自动驾驶乘用小车引起了各行各业的欢跃,而货运维业只怕更快地使用电动驾驶车子。依照2015年摩尔根士丹利(一家银行)的告知,全自动化可能会使United States卡车司机的数目减小五成。那个预测都遭受限制性条款阻碍,而那也是应有的。拔取电动驾驶技能的进程只怕会由于幽禁而减慢。依旧只怕需求司机来处理不可预言的标题;如果这几个工作急需越多的技巧知识,他们竟然足以拿走更好的待遇。其余机构的就业或许随着运费的下滑而充实。但很有只怕在不远的后天,大批量的卡车司机会发现本人是剩下的。影响是宏大的。

  3. Knowing when to jump is one problem. For people with decades of
    working life still ahead of them, it is too early to quit but it is
    also risky to assume that nothing will change. Matthew Robb of
    Parthenon-EY, a consultancy, thinks that governments should be
    talking to industry bodies about the potential for mass redundancies
    and identifying trigger points, such as the installation of sensors
    on motorways, that might prompt retraining. “This is a boiling-frog
    problem,” he says. “It is not thought about.”
    3)知道哪一天跳出现有工作是二个题材。对于还有几十年的办事才退休的人的话,以往还为时过早,但倘使什么都不会转移也是有高风险的。一家咨询公司Parthenon-EY的Matthew罗布b认为,政坛应该初露与同行业单位讨论大气裁员的大概性,并规定裁员的触发点,例如在高速公路上设置传感器的时候,来推动再培育。
    “这是一个温水煮青蛙的标题,”他说。 “还从未人想到。”

  4. For lower-skilled workers of this sort the world of MOOCs, General
    Assembly and LinkedIn is a million miles away. Around 80% of
    Coursera’s learners have university degrees. The costs of
    reskilling, in terms of time and money, are easiest to bear for
    people who have savings, can control their working hours or work for
    companies that are committed to upgrading their workforce. And
    motivation is an issue: the tremendous learning opportunities
    offered by the internet simply do not appeal to everyone.
    4)对于这类低技术工人,MOOCs,GA和LinkedIn的世界距离万里之遥。约有80%的Coursera学习者有大学学位。就时间和钱财方面来看,再培训的资产对于有存款、可以操纵他们的干活时间或为致力于增强劳引力的店铺工作的人来说是最简单的。而且动机是一个标题:网络提供的远大的上学机会并不抓住逐个人。

Whosoever hath not

  1. The rewards of retraining are highest for computing skills, but
    there is no natural pathway from trucker to coder. And even if there
    were, many of those already in the workforce lack both the
    confidence and the capability to make the switch. In its
    Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies,
    the OECD presents a bleak picture of skills levels in 33 member
    countries (see chart). One in five adults, on average, has poor
    reading and numeracy skills. One in four has little or no experience
    of computers. On a measure of problem-solving ability using
    technology, most adults are at or below the lowest level of
    proficiency.
    5)再造就的嘉奖对于电脑技术是参天的,但从卡车司机到程序员并从未天赋路径。即便存在,很多一度在工作中的人紧缺信心和能力进展职业转换。在其长进能力国际评估布置中,经合社团提供了二个关于叁十四个成员国技能水平的灰暗的景况。平均而言,十分之二的成年人的读书和计量能力很差。肆分一的人有很少或尚未电脑的阅历。在衡量接纳技巧消除难点能力方面,一大半成年人处于或小于熟谙程度的最低水平。

  2. Moreover, learning is most effective when people are able to
    practise their new skills. Yet many jobs, including lorry-driving,
    afford little such opportunity, and some of them are being deskilled
    further. Research by Tom Higgins of Cardiff University suggests that
    the numeracy requirements for retail assistants and care-home
    workers in Britain went down between 1997 and 2012. The head of one
    of the world’s biggest banks worries that a back-office operation in
    India has disaggregated its work into separate tasks so
    effectively that employees are no longer able to understand the
    processes as a whole, let alone make useful suggestions for
    improving them.
    6)此外,当人们可以陶冶他们的新技巧时,学习是最得力的。但是,许多干活,包含货车驾驶,没有提供这么的时机,其中部分竟然正在进一步降低这几个技术。卡迪夫大学的汤姆Higgins的钻研表明,对于大英帝国零售助理和护理人士的乘除能力须要在一九九七年和2011年以内降低。世界上最大的银行之一的经营管理者担心,其印度的后台部门把工作分解成独立的任务,如此有效以至于使员工不再可以了然整个过程,更毫不说提议可行的提议来革新它们。

  3. So the truckers’ dilemma will be very hard to solve. “It’s difficult
    when you don’t have a good answer even in an ideal world,” says
    Jesper Roine, an economist who sat on a Swedish commission to
    examine the future of work. But as a thought experiment it
    highlights some of the problems involved in upgrading the stock
    of
    low-skilled and mid-skilled workers. Any decent answer will
    need a co-ordinated effort to bring together individuals, employers
    and providers of education. That suggests a role for two entities in
    particular.
    7)所以卡车司机的泥坑将很难搞定。
    “如若你在一个脍炙人口的世界里不曾一个好的答案,这就很不便的,”法学家Jesper
    Roine在二个瑞典委员会分析工作的以后时说。但作为三个思索实验,它强调了提拔低技术和中路技术工人群体所提到的部分题材。任何方便的应对都亟需协调一致的极力,使个人、雇主和教化提供者聚集在同步。那注脚三个实体尤其的职能。

  4. One is trade unions. They have an industry-wide view of trends that
    may not be available to smaller employers. They can also accompany
    people throughout their working lives, which may become increasingly
    important in a world of rising self-employment. Denmark’s
    tripartite system, for example, binds together employers,
    government and unions. Firms and unions get together to identify
    skills needs; collective-bargaining agreements enshrine rights
    to
    paid leave for training. The country’s famed “flexicurity”
    system offers unemployed workers a list of 258 vocational-training
    programmes.
    8)七个是工会。他们会从总体行业的角度分析趋势,这一个是小型雇主所做不到的。他们还足以在人们的全方位工作生涯中陪伴他们,那大概在2个自由职业增进的世界变得越发首要。例如,丹麦王国的三方制度将雇主,政坛和工会联系在一块儿。企业和工集聚在联合鲜明技能必要;集体谈判协商保护带薪休假去插手培训的义务。该国盛名的“灵活安全”制度为没有工作工人提供了25伍个职业培训项目标清单。

  5. In Britain a well-regarded programme called UnionLearn uses union
    representatives both to inform workers about training options and to
    liaise with employers on workers’ requests for training. Employees
    seem more likely to discuss shortfalls in basic skills with union
    representatives than with managers. An analysis by academics at
    Leeds University Business School shows that between 2001 and 2013
    union members in Britain were a third more likely to have received
    training than non-unionised workers.
    9)在大不列颠及英格兰联合王国,一个名为UnionLearn的无人不晓项目布局工会表示去告诉工人他们的培养采用,并与雇主联系明确工人的打造必要。员工如同更赞成于与工会表示,而不是与COO,商量基本技能方面的短处。奥斯汀高校商高校学者的分析讲明,在二〇〇〇年和二零一三年以内,United Kingdom的工会积极分子比非工会工人更有可能面临培训的总人口多了三分一。

  6. The second entity is government. There is much talk about lifelong
    learning, though few countries are doing much about it. The Nordics
    fall into this less populated camp. But it is Singapore that can
    lay claim to the most 亚洲必赢网游戏手机版,joined-up approach with its
    SkillsFuture initiative. Employers in the city-state are asked to
    spell out the changes, industry by industry, that they expect to
    happen over the next three to five years, and to identify the skills
    they will need. Their answers are used to create “industry
    transformation maps” designed to guide individuals on where to
    head.
    10)第一实体是政党。有为数不少关于生平学习的座谈,尽管很少有国家对此有所行动。北欧国家就属于这厮不多的军事基地。可是,新加坡共和国以此国度可以声称它有成熟的措施——它提倡了SkillsFuture布置。那几个城市国家各样行业的雇主被须要实际表达她俩期待在今后三到五年内发生的行业变化,以及分明他们将索要的技能。他们的答案被用来创立“行业转型地图”,目的在于指点人们走向何方。

lay claim to: If you lay claim to something you do not have, you
say that it belongs to you.
joined-up : Journalists sometimes use joined-up to describe plans,
ideas, or organizations which seem sensible, sophisticated, and
mature, especially when they think that they have been unsophisticated
or immature in the past.
spell out: If you spell something out, you explain it in detail or
in a very clear way.

  1. Since January 2016 every Singaporean above the age of 25 has been
    given a S$500 ($345) credit that can be freely used to pay for any
    training courses provided by 500 approved providers, including
    universities and MOOCs. Generous subsidies, of up to 90% for
    Singaporeans aged 40 and over, are available on top of this
    credit. The programme currently has a budget of S$600m a year, which
    is due to rise to S$1 billion within three years. According to Ng
    Cher Pong, SkillsFuture’s chief executive, the returns on that
    spending matter less than changing the mindset around continuous
    reskilling.
    11)自2014年十一月起,每位二十二岁以上的印度人都已经赢得500新元(345韩元)的信贷,可以随便地用于支付由500家获准许的构建提供者(包蕴高校和MOOC)提供的任何培训科目。对于百分之九十的四十周岁及以上的印尼人,除了那份信贷之外,还有慷慨的补贴。该陈设近年来的预算为每年6亿新元,将在三年内增加到10亿新元。根据SkillsFuture首席营业官Ng
    Cher
    Pong的传教,那种支付的回报不如改成对持续重新学习新技巧的心态带来的报恩。

on top of: in addition to

  1. Some programmes cater to the needs of those who lack basic
    skills. Tripartite agreements between unions, employers and
    government lay out career and skills ladders for those who are
    trapped in low-wage occupations. Professional-conversion programmes
    offer subsidised training to people switching to new careers in
    areas such as health care.
    12)一些方案满足这些缺少基本技能的人的内需。工会,雇主和当局之间的三方协商为那一个被困于低薪水工作的人安排工作和技能阶梯。职业转换安顿为转向诸如医疗保健领域等新饭碗的人提供带补贴的营造。

  2. Given Singapore’s size and political system, this approach is not
    easily replicated in many other countries, but lessons can still be
    drawn. It makes sense for employers, particularly smaller ones, to
    club together to signal their skills needs to the workforce at
    large
    . Individual learning accounts have a somewhat chequered
    history—fraudulent training providers helped scupper a British
    experiment in the early 2000s—but if well designed, they can offer
    workers educational opportunities without being overly
    prescriptive.
    13)鉴于新加坡的框框和政治制度,许多任何国家并不易于复制那种形式,但还能学习其经验。对于雇主,尤其是较小的农奴主来说,同步凑钱将她们的技能须要大致报告劳动者是有含义的。个人学习客户有一部分波折的历史——欺诈的培训提供者破坏了United Kingdom在21世纪初的辅导尝试,但如果规划精美,他们可以提供工人的教诲机会,而不过分古板

club together: If people club together to do something, they all
give money towards the cost of it. e.g. For my thirtieth birthday, my
friends clubbed together and bought me a watch.
chequered: If a person or organization has had a chequered career
or history, they have had a varied past with both good and bad
periods.

Any fool can know

  1. In June 2016, this newspaper surveyed the realm of artificial
    intelligence and the adjustments it would require workers to make as
    jobs changed. “That will mean making education and training flexible
    enough to teach new skills quickly and efficiently,” we concluded.
    “It will require a greater emphasis on lifelong learning and
    on-the-job training, and wider use of online learning and
    video-game-style simulation.”
    14)二〇一五年六月,本报纸(法学人把自身固定为报纸)调查了人工智能的园地,以及必要工作人士随着工作转移而作出的调整。
    “这象征让教育和作育具有丰裕的八面后珑可以快捷有效地讲学新技巧,”大家统计说。
    “那将需求更加强调一生学习和在职培训,以及更广阔地使用在线学习和视频游戏风格的效仿方式。”

  2. The uncertainties around the pace and extent of technological change
    are enormous. Some fear a future of mass unemployment. Others are
    sanguine that people will have time to adapt. Companies have to
    want to adopt new technologies, after all, and regulators may
    impede their take-up. What is not in doubt is the need for
    new and more efficient ways to develop and add workplace skills.
    15)技术变革的快慢和档次的不鲜明性是惊天动地的。有些人担心大规模无业的以往。其余人对这厮们将有时间适应是乐观的。终究,公司只好采纳新技巧,而禁锢单位或许阻碍接受率。毫无疑问的是,需求新的和更实用的不二法门来发展和充实工作技术。

  3. The faint outlines of a new ecosystem for connecting employment and
    education are becoming discernible. Employers are putting
    greater emphasis on adaptability, curiosity and learning as
    desirable attributes for employees. They are working with
    universities and alternative providers to create and improve their
    own supply of talent. Shorter courses, lower costs and online
    delivery are making it easier for people to combine work and
    training. New credentials are being created to signal skills.
    16)连接就业和教化的新生态系统的混淆概况正在变得清晰。雇主更狠抓调适应性、好奇心和爱念书作为职工的精粹属性。他们正在与高校和可替代它们的辅导提供者合营,创造和增长协调的丰姿供应。更短的教程,更低的工本和在线提交使众人更易于结合工作和培养。新的证书正值被创立出来以象征所负有的技术。

  4. At the same time, new technologies should make learning more
    effective as well as more necessary. Virtual and augmented reality
    could radically improve professional training. Big data offer the
    chance for more personalised education. Platforms make it easier to
    connect people of differing levels of knowledge, allowing
    peer-to-peer teaching and mentoring. “Education is becoming
    flexible, modular, accessible and affordable,” says Simon Nelson,
    the boss of FutureLearn, the Open University MOOC.
    17)同时,新技巧应该使学习更管用,更有必要。虚拟和抓好现实可以彻底改正职业培训。大数量提供了更五性子化教育的机遇。平台使得连接不相同文化水平的人更便于,允许同伴教学和指引。开放大学MOOC
    FutureLearn的老董娘Simon奈尔孙说:“教育正在变得灵活,模块化,易于使用和负担得起。”

  5. But for now this nascent ecosystem is disproportionately likely
    to benefit those who least need help. It concentrates on advanced
    technological skills, which offer the clearest returns and are
    relatively easy to measure. And it assumes that people have the
    money, time, motivation and basic skills to retrain.
    18)然则将来这些新生态系统不成比例地便宜最不必要帮扶的人。它小心于先进的技能技能,提供最分明的回报,并且相对简单测量。它一旦人们有钱财、时间、动机和基本技能来陶冶。

  6. Thanks to examples like Singapore’s, it is possible to imagine ways
    in which continuous education can be made more accessible and
    affordable for the mass of citizens. But it is as easy—indeed,
    easier—to imagine a future in which the emerging infrastructure of
    lifelong learning reinforces existing advantages. Far from
    alleviating the impact of technological upheaval, that would risk
    exacerbating inequality and the social and economic tensions it
    brings in its wake.
    19)由于像新加坡共和国那样的事例,大家有只怕想象使群众更易于得到和负担得起持续教育的办法。不过,也很简单——确实更易于——想象将来新出现的毕生学习设施狠抓了现有的优势。远不能够减轻技术剧变的震慑,那将有加剧不相同等及其带来的社会和经济紧张的危机。
    This article appeared in the Special report section of the print
    edition under the headline “The elephant in the truck”

原文出处:工学人杂志

译者:安东Anton

本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转发及用于其余商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由自己负责。自身同意简书平台在接获有关文章权人的布告后,删除小说。

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