按照:
这首是经济学人1月登出“终身学习”特别报道的末尾一首,关注在技能越发有或替代人类工作的今日,低技术群体之重新教育问题。读毕本文乃以了解及手上底MOOC教育模式带来福利的而其实并无公道(大学生等赶紧抓紧时间自我提升吧),以及新加坡这样的国家吗那个国民提供的继续教育福利。作为个体来说,不可知坐等国家或者公司提供便利,利用所有资源抓紧学习才是王道。
春节假期就尽快结了,扶朕起来,继续学!

The elephant in the truck

The elephant in the truck

货车里之大象


One is trade unions. They have an industry-wide view of trends that may
not be available to smaller employers. They can also accompany people
throughout their working lives, which may become increasingly important
in a world of rising self-employment. Denmark’s tripartite system, for
example, binds together employers, government and unions. Firms and
unions get together to identify skills needs; collective-bargaining
agreements enshrine rights to paid leave for training. The country’s
famed “flexicurity” system offers unemployed workers a list of 258
vocational-training programmes.
其间有是工会。他们有着的皆行业发展趋势视角往往是相似小型用人单位所不拥有的。他们相同好陪伴劳动者的漫天职业生涯,在一个自创创业更加多之社会风气被即将移得越来越重要。以丹麦底老三正值系也例,将用人单位、政府和工会组成起来。企业同工会做来确定技能要求;劳资谈判来规定培训之权。国内享有盛名的“弹性安全”制度为下岗劳动者提供了
258 栽假期培训计划。

In Britain a well-regarded programme called Union Learn uses union
representatives both to inform workers about training options and to
liaise with employers on workers’ requests for training. Employees seem
more likely to discuss shortfalls in basic skills with union
representatives than with managers. An analysis by academics at Leeds
University Business School shows that between 2001 and 2013 union
members in Britain were a third more likely to have received training
than non unionised workers.
每当英国一个小有名气被叫作 Union Learn
的计划经过工会代表来报告劳动者的造选择并以劳动者的造要求报告用人单位。相较于用人单位,劳动者似乎将基础技术的亏失问题报工会代表。
Leeds University Business School 的均等桩学术研究指出,在 2001 年至 2013
年之间,在英国插手工会的劳动者接受培养的比重比从来不到场的充分了大致三分之一。

The second entity is government. There is much talk about lifelong
learning, though few countries are doing much about it. The Nordics fall
into this less populated camp. But it is Singapore that can lay claim to
the most joined-up approach with its Skills Future initiative. Employers
in the city-state are asked to spell out the changes, industry by
industry, that they expect to happen over the next three to five years,
and to identify the skills they will need. Their answers are used to
create “industry transformation maps” designed to guide individuals on
where to head.
次个实体是朝。关于终身学习的论述很多,然而没什么政府真正做了好多。北欧之成千上万国于就点落入下风。反而是新加坡政府声称通过
Skills Future
项目确立了无与伦比成熟体系。这个城邦国家要求不同行业的用人单位列明行业的开拓进取转移,以及未来老三暨五年的发展趋势,然后指出他们需要之当技能。这些答案为用于创造一个“产业变迁地图”,最终服务让那些指导劳动者未来发展趋势。

Retraining low-skilled workers

Systems for continuous reskilling threaten to buttress inequality
Jan 14th 2017

英文中有句谚语叫做an elephant in the room,意思是there is an obvious
problem or difficult situation that people do not want to talk
about.此处来戏仿的代表,因为下文提到了卡车司机。
buttress: to support or give strength to sb/sth

亚洲必赢网游戏手机版 1

慕课时代之教导公平

  1. IMAGINE YOU ARE a 45-year-old long-distance lorry driver. You never
    enjoyed school and left as soon as you could, with a smattering
    of
    qualifications and no great love of learning. The job is tiring
    and solitary, but it does at least seem to offer decent job
    security: driver shortages are a perennial complaint in the
    industry, and the average age of the workforce is high (48 in
    Britain), so the shortfalls are likely to get worse. America’s
    Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) says there were 1.8m truckers in
    2014 and expects a 5% rise in their number by 2024. “As the economy
    grows, the demand for goods will increase and more truck drivers
    will be needed to keep supply chains moving,” predicts the BLS
    website, chirpily.
    1)想象你是一个45载的远程货车驾驶员。你根本不曾喜爱了学,并不久离开了全校,只有一点点专业资格,也不易于读书。这项工作是疲倦而一身的,但其至少似乎能提供体面的干活保障:司机短缺是是行业长年的抱怨,劳动力的平均年龄很高(在英国也48夏),所以司机短缺情况也许会见更换得重浅。美国劳工统计局(BLS)表示,2014年起180万卡车司机,预计到2024年以大增5%。“随着经济之增长,货物需求将增多,需要再行多之卡车司机来保障供应链运转”,BLS网站欢快地预测道。

  2. But the future might unfold very differently. For all the
    excitement over self-driving passenger cars, the freight industry is
    likely to adopt autonomous vehicles even faster. And according to a
    report in 2014 by Morgan Stanley, a bank, full automation might
    reduce the pool of American truck drivers by two-thirds. Those
    projections came hedged with caveats, and rightly so. The
    pace of adoption may be slowed by regulation. Drivers may still be
    needed to deal with unforeseen problems; if such jobs require more
    technical knowledge, they may even pay better. Employment in other
    sectors may grow as freight costs come down. But there is a chance
    that in the not too distant future a very large number of
    truckers will find themselves redundant. The implications are
    immense.
    2)但是,未来或许会见因不同之方展开。自动驾驶乘用汽车引起了各行各业的兴奋,而货运行业或更快地采取电动开车辆。根据2014年摩根士丹利(一家银行)的报告,全自动化可能会见如美国卡车司机的数减少三分之二。这些预测还遭遇限制性条款阻碍,而立吗是应有的。采用电动驾驶技术的快可能会见出于监管若减慢。仍然可能用司机来拍卖不可预见的题目;如果这些干活儿得再多的技能知识,他们甚至足以得到重新好的酬金。其他机构的就业或随着运费的回落而益。但那个有或在非多之未来,大量之卡车司机会发现自己是剩下的。影响是英雄的。

  3. Knowing when to jump is one problem. For people with decades of
    working life still ahead of them, it is too early to quit but it is
    also risky to assume that nothing will change. Matthew Robb of
    Parthenon-EY, a consultancy, thinks that governments should be
    talking to industry bodies about the potential for mass redundancies
    and identifying trigger points, such as the installation of sensors
    on motorways, that might prompt retraining. “This is a boiling-frog
    problem,” he says. “It is not thought about.”
    3)知道何时跳出现有工作是一个题材。对于还有几十年之劳作才退休的人口吧,现在尚为时尚早,但借用而什么还不见面转移吗是出高风险的。一家咨询公司Parthenon-EY的Matthew
    Robb认为,政府理应初露跟同行业机构讨论大气裁员的可能性,并规定裁员的触发点,例如当高速公路及安传感器的下,来推动又树。
    “这是一个温水煮蛙的问题,”他说。 “还没有丁想到。”

  4. For lower-skilled workers of this sort the world of MOOCs, General
    Assembly and LinkedIn is a million miles away. Around 80% of
    Coursera’s learners have university degrees. The costs of
    reskilling, in terms of time and money, are easiest to bear for
    people who have savings, can control their working hours or work for
    companies that are committed to upgrading their workforce. And
    motivation is an issue: the tremendous learning opportunities
    offered by the internet simply do not appeal to everyone.
    4)对于这好像小技术工人,MOOCs,GA和LinkedIn的世界距离万里之遥。约产生80%之Coursera学习者有大学学位。就时以及金钱方面来拘禁,再树之血本对生储蓄、可以决定他们之办事时间还是也致力于增进劳动力的小卖部工作之总人口吧是无与伦比易之。而且动机是一个题材:互联网提供的赫赫的习时连无抓住每个人。

Whosoever hath not

  1. The rewards of retraining are highest for computing skills, but
    there is no natural pathway from trucker to coder. And even if there
    were, many of those already in the workforce lack both the
    confidence and the capability to make the switch. In its
    Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies,
    the OECD presents a bleak picture of skills levels in 33 member
    countries (see chart). One in five adults, on average, has poor
    reading and numeracy skills. One in four has little or no experience
    of computers. On a measure of problem-solving ability using
    technology, most adults are at or below the lowest level of
    proficiency.
    5)再树的褒奖对电脑技术是参天的,但于卡车司机到程序员并从未天赋路径。即使是,很多早就在工作中的人数少自信心和能力展开职业转换。在那长进能力国际评估计划受到,经合组织提供了一个关于33只成员国技能水平的惨淡的事态。平均而言,五分之一的人的读与计量能力十分不同。四分之一的人来死少或者没有电脑的阅历。在衡量采用技巧解决问题能力方面,大多数成年人处于要么小于熟练程度的最低水平。

  2. Moreover, learning is most effective when people are able to
    practise their new skills. Yet many jobs, including lorry-driving,
    afford little such opportunity, and some of them are being deskilled
    further. Research by Tom Higgins of Cardiff University suggests that
    the numeracy requirements for retail assistants and care-home
    workers in Britain went down between 1997 and 2012. The head of one
    of the world’s biggest banks worries that a back-office operation in
    India has disaggregated its work into separate tasks so
    effectively that employees are no longer able to understand the
    processes as a whole, let alone make useful suggestions for
    improving them.
    6)此外,当众人能够练习他们之初技巧时,学习是最为管用之。然而,许多干活,包括货车开,没有提供这样的机会,其中有些还正在进一步下滑这些技术。卡迪夫大学的Tom
    Higgins的钻研表明,对于英国零售助理与护理人员的测算能力要求以1997年与2012年期间下降。世界上顶酷之银行某的领导担心,其印度之后台部门管工作分解改为独立的职责,如此有效以至于如果职工不再会了解所有经过,更毫不说提出行之有效之提议来改善其。

  3. So the truckers’ dilemma will be very hard to solve. “It’s difficult
    when you don’t have a good answer even in an ideal world,” says
    Jesper Roine, an economist who sat on a Swedish commission to
    examine the future of work. But as a thought experiment it
    highlights some of the problems involved in upgrading the stock
    of
    low-skilled and mid-skilled workers. Any decent answer will
    need a co-ordinated effort to bring together individuals, employers
    and providers of education. That suggests a role for two entities in
    particular.
    7)所以卡车司机的泥坑将坏麻烦化解。
    “如果你于一个优秀之世界里没一个好之答案,这就算十分不便的,”经济学家Jesper
    Roine以一个瑞典委员会分析工作之前途经常说。但当一个想想实验,它强调了晋级没有技术和中路技术工人群体所关联的片段题目。任何方便的答问都亟需协调一致的鼎力,使个人、雇主及育提供者聚集在共同。这表明两个实体特别的企图。

  4. One is trade unions. They have an industry-wide view of trends that
    may not be available to smaller employers. They can also accompany
    people throughout their working lives, which may become increasingly
    important in a world of rising self-employment. Denmark’s
    tripartite system, for example, binds together employers,
    government and unions. Firms and unions get together to identify
    skills needs; collective-bargaining agreements enshrine rights
    to
    paid leave for training. The country’s famed “flexicurity”
    system offers unemployed workers a list of 258 vocational-training
    programmes.
    8)一个是工会。他们会打全体行业的角度解析趋势,这些是小型雇主所做不交的。他们还可以于众人的浑办事生涯蒙陪伴他们,这恐怕于一个自由职业增长的世界变得越来越重要。例如,丹麦之三方制将雇主,政府与工会联系在同步。公司和工会聚于联名确定技能要求;集体谈判协商保护带薪休假去参加培训的权利。该国著名的“灵活安全”制度也失业工人提供了258单职业培训项目之清单。

  5. In Britain a well-regarded programme called UnionLearn uses union
    representatives both to inform workers about training options and to
    liaise with employers on workers’ requests for training. Employees
    seem more likely to discuss shortfalls in basic skills with union
    representatives than with managers. An analysis by academics at
    Leeds University Business School shows that between 2001 and 2013
    union members in Britain were a third more likely to have received
    training than non-unionised workers.
    9)在英国,一个称为吧UnionLearn的头面项目配置工会代表去告诉工人他们之造选择,并与雇主联系确定工人的培养要求。员工似乎更倾向被跟工会表示,而无是跟领导,讨论基本技能方面的短处。利兹大学商学院专家的分析表明,在2001年同2013年之间,英国底工会积极分子比非工会工人又有或受培训之人数多了三分之一。

  6. The second entity is government. There is much talk about lifelong
    learning, though few countries are doing much about it. The Nordics
    fall into this less populated camp. But it is Singapore that can
    lay claim to the most joined-up approach with its
    SkillsFuture initiative. Employers in the city-state are asked to
    spell out the changes, industry by industry, that they expect to
    happen over the next three to five years, and to identify the skills
    they will need. Their answers are used to create “industry
    transformation maps” designed to guide individuals on where to
    head.
    10)第二实体是政府。有广大有关终身学习的座谈,尽管很少发生国家针对这有所行动。北欧国家就属于这个人口非多的军事基地。但是,新加坡之国度可以宣示其来成熟的法——它提倡了SkillsFuture计划。这个城市国家每个行业之雇主被求实际说明他俩愿意在未来叔顶五年内发的正业扭转,以及确定他们以需要之技能。他们之答案为用来创造“行业转型地图”,旨在指导人们走向何方。

lay claim to: If you lay claim to something you do not have, you
say that it belongs to you.
joined-up : Journalists sometimes use joined-up to describe plans,
ideas, or organizations which seem sensible, sophisticated, and
mature, especially when they think that they have been unsophisticated
or immature in the past.
spell out: If you spell something out, you explain it in detail or
in a very clear way.

  1. Since January 2016 every Singaporean above the age of 25 has been
    given a S$500 ($345) credit that can be freely used to pay for any
    training courses provided by 500 approved providers, including
    universities and MOOCs. Generous subsidies, of up to 90% for
    Singaporeans aged 40 and over, are available on top of this
    credit. The programme currently has a budget of S$600m a year, which
    is due to rise to S$1 billion within three years. According to Ng
    Cher Pong, SkillsFuture’s chief executive, the returns on that
    spending matter less than changing the mindset around continuous
    reskilling.
    11)自2016年1月自从,每位25春秋以上的新加坡人都早已沾500初长(345美元)的信贷,可以肆意地用于开发由500寒沾认可的栽培提供者(包括大学与MOOC)提供的别样培训课程。对于90%底40夏和以上之新加坡人,除了当即卖信贷之外,还有慷慨的补贴。该计划时底预算为每年6亿初长,将当三年内多到10亿新元。根据SkillsFuture首席执行官Ng
    Cher
    Pong的传教,这种支付的报不如改对连重新学习新技巧的情怀带来的报恩。

on top of: in addition to

  1. Some programmes cater to the needs of those who lack basic
    skills. Tripartite agreements between unions, employers and
    government lay out career and skills ladders for those who are
    trapped in low-wage occupations. Professional-conversion programmes
    offer subsidised training to people switching to new careers in
    areas such as health care.
    12)一些方案满足那些欠基本技能的食指的要。工会,雇主及朝内的老三方协商为那些给累死于小工资工作之人头安排事情和技艺阶梯。职业转换计划为转向如医疗保健领域等新业之丁提供带补贴的培养。

  2. Given Singapore’s size and political system, this approach is not
    easily replicated in many other countries, but lessons can still be
    drawn. It makes sense for employers, particularly smaller ones, to
    club together to signal their skills needs to the workforce at
    large
    . Individual learning accounts have a somewhat chequered
    history—fraudulent training providers helped scupper a British
    experiment in the early 2000s—but if well designed, they can offer
    workers educational opportunities without being overly
    prescriptive.
    13)鉴于新加坡的范围和政制度,许多其它国家并无易于复制这种方法,但依旧可学学该经验。对于雇主,特别是比较小之雇主来说,同聚钱拿她们之技术要求大致告诉劳动者是生意义的。个人学习客户来一些波折的历史——欺诈的培育提供者破坏了英国在21世纪初的育尝试,但万一计划好,他们得供工人的教诲时,而休过分古板

club together: If people club together to do something, they all
give money towards the cost of it. e.g. For my thirtieth birthday, my
friends clubbed together and bought me a watch.
chequered: If a person or organization has had a chequered career
or history, they have had a varied past with both good and bad
periods.

Any fool can know

  1. In June 2016, this newspaper surveyed the realm of artificial
    intelligence and the adjustments it would require workers to make as
    jobs changed. “That will mean making education and training flexible
    enough to teach new skills quickly and efficiently,” we concluded.
    “It will require a greater emphasis on lifelong learning and
    on-the-job training, and wider use of online learning and
    video-game-style simulation.”
    14)2016年6月,本报纸(经济学人把好一定为报纸)调查了人工智能的领域,以及需要工作人员随着工作转移而作出的调整。
    “这表示给傅与造就具有足够的灵活性能够很快灵地教新技巧,”我们总说。
    “这将用进一步强调终身学习和在职培训,以及再广泛地用在线上及视频游戏风格的模仿方式。”

  2. The uncertainties around the pace and extent of technological change
    are enormous. Some fear a future of mass unemployment. Others are
    sanguine that people will have time to adapt. Companies have to
    want to adopt new technologies, after all, and regulators may
    impede their take-up. What is not in doubt is the need for
    new and more efficient ways to develop and add workplace skills.
    15)技术变革的进度以及品位之不确定性是惊天动地的。有些人担心大规模失业的前景。其他人对此人们将发时空适应是乐观的。毕竟,公司不得不用新技巧,而监管机关可能阻碍接受率。毫无疑问的是,需要新的及更使得之办法来发展及增工作技术。

  3. The faint outlines of a new ecosystem for connecting employment and
    education are becoming discernible. Employers are putting
    greater emphasis on adaptability, curiosity and learning as
    desirable attributes for employees. They are working with
    universities and alternative providers to create and improve their
    own supply of talent. Shorter courses, lower costs and online
    delivery are making it easier for people to combine work and
    training. New credentials are being created to signal skills.
    16)连接就业及教导之初生态系统的模糊轮廓在更换得清晰。雇主更强调适应性、好奇心和爱读书作为员工的理想属性。他们正同高校与可代它的启蒙提供者合作,创造和增长协调的丰姿供应。更缺乏的课,更低的血本以及在线提交使人们还易于做工作与培训。新的证书正值让创造出来为表示所具有的技艺。

  4. At the same time, new technologies should make learning more
    effective as well as more necessary. Virtual and augmented reality
    could radically improve professional training. Big data offer the
    chance for more personalised education. Platforms make it easier to
    connect people of differing levels of knowledge, allowing
    peer-to-peer teaching and mentoring. “Education is becoming
    flexible, modular, accessible and affordable,” says Simon Nelson,
    the boss of FutureLearn, the Open University MOOC.
    17)同时,新技巧应该使攻还管用,更产生必不可少。虚拟和提高现实可以彻底改善职业培训。大数量提供了更多只性化教育之机遇。平台使得连接不同文化水平的口重新易于,允许同伴教学及指导。开放大学MOOC
    FutureLearn的小业主Simon
    Nelson说:“教育在换得活,模块化,易于使与负担得起。”

  5. But for now this nascent ecosystem is disproportionately likely
    to benefit those who least need help. It concentrates on advanced
    technological skills, which offer the clearest returns and are
    relatively easy to measure. And it assumes that people have the
    money, time, motivation and basic skills to retrain.
    18)但是本是新生态系统不成比例地利最无待支援的人数。它小心于先进的技巧技能,提供最好清楚的报,并且相对容易测量。它要人们发出金、时间、动机与基本技能来训练。

  6. Thanks to examples like Singapore’s, it is possible to imagine ways
    in which continuous education can be made more accessible and
    affordable for the mass of citizens. But it is as easy—indeed,
    easier—to imagine a future in which the emerging infrastructure of
    lifelong learning reinforces existing advantages. Far from
    alleviating the impact of technological upheaval, that would risk
    exacerbating inequality and the social and economic tensions it
    brings in its wake.
    19)由于像新加坡这么的例证,我们出或想象如果群众更便于取得与负担得起持续教育的措施。但是,也格外易——确实更爱——想象未来初面世的终生学习设施加强了现有的优势。远不可知减轻技术剧变的影响,这将生加剧勿一样及其带来的社会与经济紧张之高风险。
    This article appeared in the Special report section of the print
    edition under the headline “The elephant in the truck”

原文出处:经济学人杂志

译者:安东Anton

本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言的故,谢绝任何转载以及用于其它商业用途。本译文所提到法律后果均是因为自身负责。本人同意简书平台于接获有关著作权人的关照后,删除文章。

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